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ADHD - Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

By Jasmine Sihota

What is it?

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is classified as a mental disorder. It's very common among the population of the world and can last from months to years. Those who are diagnosed have difficulty paying attention along with hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD is usually diagnosed at the age of seven and affects a majority of those aged between three and six years old. Symptoms of ADHD may include unproductivity, poor organization or concentration skills, interrupting others constantly, risky behavior, and being distracted easily [3]. ADHD varies between three main types: ADHD combined, hyperactive, and inattentiveness. ADHD combined shows a mix of multiple symptoms that are present in hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Those who are hyperactive may show more physical symptoms like fidgeting or blurting. Those who are inattentive often make many careless mistakes and have trouble engaging in an activity for an extended amount of time [4].

How is it developed and diagnosed?

ADHD is usually passed down genetically. Those diagnosed with ADHD typically inherit it from a family member who also has ADHD. Chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters have nerve pathways that work differently in children and adults; people diagnosed tend to have different functions than those who aren't [3]. They mature at a different pace in judgment, impulse control, and social behavior. To diagnose, doctors rely on a person’s surroundings and peers. However, no single test or physical characteristic can verify ADHD [2].

What treatments are available?

The most popular treatment for ADHD is talk or cognitive therapy. This therapy includes the individual who is diagnosed along with their friends, peers, and teachers. There are also oral medications known as stimulants that were passed for usage by the US in 2003. Stimulants are given at an early age [2]. When prescribed, stimulants help minimize symptoms as shown by 80% of the children who have taken this medication. ADHD can't be outgrown, but the effects and symptoms can decrease over time.

What are the effects of ADHD?

ADHD can affect anyone. Since it is usually diagnosed at a young age, ADHD is noticed from a child's performance in school [2]. Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are shown to receive lower grades; they are not able to pay attention or engage in class as much as their peers can. ADHD affects a person's sleep, productivity, and body cycle. [1]. Adults who are unproductive may struggle with their work because they fall behind and can’t complete their responsibilities. ADHD and sleep have a cohesive relationship because they both have the ability to throw off the body's internal clock. It is recommended to not take any naps and sleep in a quiet dark room. Overall, ADHD can change a person’s lifestyle and affect those close to them.


  1. ADD and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) Health Center. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2020, from

  2. Angel, T. (2020, September 05). Everything You Need to Know About ADHD. Retrieved October 31, 2020, from

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children - Symptoms and causes. (2019, June 25). Mayo Clinic.

  4. Williams, P., Williams, P., Board, A., & Dodson, W. (2020, October 14). What Are the 3 Types of ADHD? Retrieved October 31, 2020, from

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